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Aug 28 2013 (22:52)
Blog Post# 838259-0
▅ ▆ ▇ █★KR ♥ Lover ♥ Forever★█ ▇ ▆ ▅~ Added by: Krutarth*^ Aug 28 2013 (23:02)
- Bio Toilets
Two railway stations, Chiplun and Kankavali on the KR route, had earlier been selected for installing the country’s first green toilets to bio-degrade night soil through technology developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
“The technology, while permitting eco-friendly and quicker disposal of human waste, is also economical. Passengers and locals at both Chiplun and Kankavali have appreciated the efforts of the railways,” the official said.
by the public response, KR has now decided to set up such toilets at all the major stations on its network.
The bio-toilet uses the DRDO’s bio-digester technology, which is economical and can be implemented faster than the regular RCC (reinforced concrete cement) toilets.
“The technology is 100 percent maintenance-free and allows complete elimination of pathogens without requiring the night soil to be disposed through sewage line and septic tank,” the official explained.
Since the need for septic tanks and sewage lines has been eliminated in this technology, the bio-toilets can be installed and ready for use within just 48 hours, compared to two months for the conventional toilets.
Even the cost savings on bio-toilets are high, as much as 70 percent, compared to regular toilets. While a regular toilet costs around Rs.100,000, a bio-toilet can be put up at just Rs.30,000.
The bio-digester requires only an initial one-time charging with anaerobic bacterial inoculums if it is in regular use.
The bio-degradation of the night soil leads to generation of bio-gas which can be utilised for cooking.
The clean, odour-less water extracted after bio-degradation can be recycled for irrigation in gardens and other such places.The DRDO bio-toilets are being widely utilised by the defence forces in remote locations.
The Indian Railways signed a memorandum of understanding with the DRDO in 2010 to develop a bio-toilet for use in railway coaches to improve the environment in and around the railway infrastructure.
What are Bio-Toilets......
BIO TOILETS ( BIO- DIGESTER )
CbS with support of technology developed and approved by DRDO – Ministry of Defence offers an innovative technology for disposal of human waste in eco friendly manner. These Bio toilets can function at any atmospheric temp between -55 to 60 degree C. The bacterial consortium degrades night soil at temp as low as -55 degree C and produces colourless, odourless and inflammable bio gas containing 50 – 70% methane.
The main constituents of Bio -Toilet are Pre fabricated above the ground shelter and Bio Digester tank. Bio digester tank is a cylindrical structure with the provision of inlet for human waste and out let for Bio gas. Temp in the bio – digester is maintained between 5-30 degree C. A person can use the toilet which is connected to the bio-digester. Night soil degradation occurs through microbial reaction which converts it into bio gas. The smell of night soil, the disease causing organisms in the night soil and the solid matter are eliminated totally. On dry weight basis 90% of the solid waste is reduced. The gaseous effluent (bio-gas) is continuously let off to the atmosphere. Bio Gas can be used for various energy incentive activities like cooking water and room heating. Liquid effluent can be drained to any surface or soak pit with out any environmental hazards.
TECHNOLOGY BEHIND BIO TOILET
Human waste disposal in high altitude and low temp areas, Moving Railway coaches, Buses, Big Cities, Mines, remote areas, Beaches, Rural areas, long distance buses is a burning problem.
The problem has further aggravated in glaciers where ambient temperature drops to -40 degree C and lower. The low temp stops/ delays the natural bio-degradation of the waste leading to its preservation (accumulation) for long time resulting in environmental hazard. Local heating by direct sunlight exposes the waste buried in the ice causing nuisance and foul smell. The melting ice takes the waste to rivers disturbing the aquatic eco system. More over human waste is also responsible for spreading of water born diseases like typhoid, cholera, Shigellosis, Amebic Dysenteries, Diarrhea etc.This technology is suitable for any area/ application in India.
The process under this technology culminates in to treated effluent which is free from Pathogens and is also environmentally acceptable. The technology has major two components:
a- Low temp active inoculums
b- Temp controlled Bio digester
A consortium of anaerobic bacteria has been formulated and adopted to work at temp as low as 5 degree C. This is the component which acts as inoculums (seed material) to the bio digester and converts the organic waste into methane and carbon-dioxide. The anaerobic process in- activates the pathogens responsible for water born diseases. Bio digester serves as reaction vessel for bio methanation and provides the anaerobic conditions and required temp for the bacteria. The optimum temp is maintained by microbial heat, insulation of the reactor and solar heating.
Suitable for sub zero temperature of Himalayan Region, Glaciers, Railway coaches, Buses, Highways, Remote areas, sea ports, Mining area, metro cities etc.
Suitable for Mobile Toilet applications
100% maintenance free, continuous biological process.
Complete elimination of pathogens.
No dependence on the limited and costly conventional energy sources.
Can be installed and made operational in 12 hours only.
Inoculums charging is only once during the entire life of Bio Toilet.
No need of connectivity to the sewage line, septic tank. No disposal of sludge is required.
Routine cleaning chemicals like phenyl, soap, Kerosene etc. do not harm Bio Toilet or the inoculums.