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Today (2:19PM)


Entry# 1921     
Signs & Symbols Used In Railway Tracks

★★★  Info Update
Yesterday (11:35PM)
Blog Post# 1730952-0     
JAI MAA TARA**     Added by: JAI MAA TARA**    Today (2:19PM)
******** Signs & Symbols Used In Railway Tracks *******
1 Speed Limit Number on triangular yellow board : speed limit in km/h. 'KMPH' or 'KM/H' may optionally appear below the number. Black text.Sometimes the board has additional text, for instance 'RAJDHANI ONLY' may appear at the bottom, indicating that the speed is restricted for the Rajdhani service on this stretch.
2 Speed Limit - Rajdhani/Shatabdi Number on blue board: indicates a special speed limit (in km/h) for Rajdhani and Shatabdi trains. Text is in white. (But see above -- sometimes the
normal speed limit board is used with additional annotations for these trains.)
3 Termination Indicator T (painted on a yellow circular board) : Termination of speed limit
4 Termination Indicators T/P, T/G, or T/BOXN (painted on a yellow circular board) : Termination of speed zone for, respectively, passenger trains, goods trains, and goods trains with BOXN wagon rakes. In urban areas similar signs such as T/EMU, T/EMU-9, etc., may be seen (termination of speed limit for EMU rakes, EMU rakes with 9 coaches, respectively). Other termination indicators seen include T/PG (for both passenger and goods trains, seen on ECoR), T/P24 (for 24-coach or longer passenger trains), and T/L (for local, i.e., suburban trains, usually EMU or DMU trains). The Hyderabad area MMTS system uses a T/M sign for its trains. T/R is sometimes seen for railbuses. Occasionally, the sign T by itself is shown to indicate a termination of speed limit for all trains. A T/Raj sign was in use for Rajdhani trains when they were first introduced but is no longer used now. WR used T/Raj indicators for the 8-coach Bombay - New Delhi Rajdhani, and its EMUs used the same sign as a termination indicator.
5 Whistle Indicators 'W', or 'W/L' on a square yellow board. The 'W' is a general whistle indicator while the 'W/L' stands for Whistle for Level Crossing. The latter is also seen in Hindi with the characters 'see/pha' == 'seetee bajao - phatak'). Usually provided on approach to unmanned level crossings (and for manned level crossings without a clear view) about 250m away from the level crossing. Similarly, a 'W/B' sign is seen (less often) on approach to a bridge.
For more Indicators Please refer: click here
Feb 04 2016 (11:46PM)


Entry# 1920     
Dedicated BLOG on Semiconductors and other related componenrs used in the Semiconductors of 3-Phase Electric Locomotives in IR

★  Info Update
Feb 04 2016 (11:23PM)
Blog Post# 1729958-0     
JAI MAA TARA**     Added by: JAI MAA TARA**    Feb 04 2016 (11:46PM)
********* Dedicated BLOG on Semiconductors and other related components used in the Semiconductors of 3-Phase Electric Locomotives in IR *****
Ref: /faq/post/1875
In the above FAQ Post I describe all the details of GTO & IGBT Semiconductors and the difference between this Two.
In the above reply I describe the difference between a Thyristor(GTO i.e Gate Turn Off Thyristor) and Transistor(IGBT i.e Insulated Gated Bi-Polar Transistor)
Now in both of the above references one thing is Common that both GTO & IGBT are "SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE" used in 3-Phase Locomotives. In perspective of this line it is now very Imperative to share the knowledge of "Semiconductor Device" in details here. So that all of you can know the Concept of "Semiconductor Device" in details.
Semiconductor Device:
Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors. Semiconductor devices have replaced thermionic devices (vacuum tubes) in most applications. They use electronic conduction in the solid state as opposed to the gaseous state or thermionic emission in a high vacuum.Semiconductor devices are manufactured both as single discrete devices and as integrated circuits (ICs), which consist of a number—from a few (as low as two) to billions—of devices manufactured and interconnected on a single semiconductor substrate, or wafer.Semiconductor materials are useful because their behavior can be easily manipulated by the addition of impurities, known as doping. Semiconductor conductivity can be controlled by introduction of an electric or magnetic field, by exposure to light or heat, or by mechanical deformation of a doped monocrystalline grid; thus, semiconductors can make excellent sensors. Current conduction in a semiconductor occurs via mobile or "free" electrons and holes, collectively known as charge carriers. Doping a semiconductor such as silicon with a small amount of impurity atoms, such as phosphorus or boron, greatly increases the number of free electrons or holes within the semiconductor. When a doped semiconductor contains excess holes it is called "p-type", and when it contains excess free electrons it is known as "n-type", where p (positive for holes) or n (negative for electrons) is the sign of the charge of the majority mobile charge carriers. The semiconductor material used in devices is doped under highly controlled conditions in a fabrication facility, or fab, to control precisely the location and concentration of p- and n-type dopants. The junctions which form where n-type and p-type semiconductors join together are called p–n junctions.
For more details and various Types of Semiconductor Device please refer: click here
What is p-nJunctions in c/w with Semiconductors?
Ans: A p–n junction is a boundary or interface between two types of semiconductor material, p-type and n-type, inside a single crystal of semiconductor. It is created by doping, for example by ion implantation, diffusion of dopants, or by epitaxy (growing a layer of crystal doped with one type of dopant on top of a layer of crystal doped with another type of dopant). If two separate pieces of material were used, this would introduce a grain boundary between the semiconductors that would severely inhibit its utility by scattering the electrons and holes.p–n junctions are elementary "building blocks" of most semiconductor electronic devices such as diodes, transistors, solar cells, LEDs, and integrated circuits; they are the active sites where the electronic action of the device takes place. For example, a common type of transistor, the bipolar junction transistor, consists of two p–n junctions in series, in the form n–p–n or p–n–p.The discovery of the p–n junction is usually attributed to American physicist Russell Ohl of Bell Laboratories.However, Vadim Lashkaryov reported discovery of p-n-junctions in Cu_2O and silver sulphide photocells and selenium rectifiers in 1941.A Schottky junction is a special case of a p–n junction, where metal serves the role of the p-type semiconductor.
For more details on p-njunction please refer: click here
What is p-type and n-type semiconductor material ?(Also known as Extrinsic Semiconductor)
Ans: click here
What is "Doping Agent/Dopant" used in Extrinsic Semiconductor ?
Ans: click here
Attached Images:
An n–p–n bipolar junction transistor structure
Link: click here
Link: click here
Link: click here
(Hope from this BLOG all of you get a Complete Idea about Semiconductors used in 3-Phase Loco[i.e WAP-5/WAP-7 & WAG-9] of Indian Railways)
Feb 01 2016 (8:24PM)


Entry# 1919     
Boxer Bhai *^  
retiring room

General Travel
Feb 01 2016 (7:45PM)
Blog Post# 1726843-0     
NAGA RAJU     Added by: Boxer Bhai *^    Feb 01 2016 (8:24PM)
i had booked a retiring room with my ticket , if cancel my ticket , automatically canceled that retiring room ? ####### urgent ###
Feb 01 2016 (7:22PM)

Fares/Concessions/Refund Rules

Entry# 1918     
छोटा आदमी**  
Non standard circular journey

★★★  General Travel
Nov 19 2015 (11:37AM)
Blog Post# 1654263-0     
छोटा आदमी**     Added by: छोटा आदमी**    Feb 01 2016 (7:22PM)
***** Request Letter // Format for booking non-standard Circular journey tickets. *****
attached here is letter required for booking circular journey tickets, a passenger is suppose to present a letter in this format to the concerned booking office . A "circular tour travel authority" ticket is issued mentioning all details on it (i.e - passenger details, complete travel itenerary, class etc)
After this,
one needs to fill in separate reservation forms for all legs of this circular journey and present this "circular tour travel authority" ticket to the booking clerk, only reservation charges are levied on all individual legs of journey tickets.
Important Info - the fare for non-standard circular journey it calculated slightly different from telescopic fares.
Non standard Circular Journey Ticket is charged for as two single journeys, the length of each single journey being taken as half of the total distance.
i.e total distance for my circular journey is 6000 kms, then fare will calculated as 2 single journeys of 3000kms (half the total distance)
Jan 31 2016 (10:16PM)


Entry# 1917     

★★  Rail Fanning
Jan 31 2016 (5:26PM)
Blog Post# 1725808-0     
JAI MAA TARA**     Added by: JAI MAA TARA**    Jan 31 2016 (10:16PM)
******** Indian locomotive class WP was a class of 4-6-2 "Pacific" steam locomotives used in India *****
The Indian locomotive class WP was a class of 4-6-2 "Pacific" steam locomotives used in India. It was introduced after World War II for passenger duties, marking the change from 'X' to
'W' as the classification code for broad gauge locomotives.The class was designed specifically for low-calorie, high-ash Indian coal, by Railway Board designers in India.WP class locomotives were capable of doing up to 110 km/h (68 mph) and were easily recognized by their cone-shaped bulging nose, usually with a silver star device painted on it.
For more details: Indian locomotive class WP
Attached Images:
Locomotive class WP by Fablok in 1959
Link: click here
WP/P class 7200 by Baldwin from 1947, at the National Rail Museum, New Delhi (1993)
Link: click here
(Please note that the Coal Carrier is attached with the LOCOMOTIVE. A Robust Locomotive in all respect)
Jan 31 2016 (3:16PM)

Coach Construction/Seating Arrangements

Entry# 1916     
What is Doctor Coach

★  Travel Question
Jan 31 2016 (1:52PM)
Blog Post# 1725687-0     
48645**     Added by: 48645**    Jan 31 2016 (3:16PM)
What this "+" sign denotes at coaches?
Jan 26 2016 (7:43PM)


Entry# 1915     
Indian Train Blog**  
What are the Govt (CSTC) Buses from various Eastern Railway Stations to different locations of Kolkata City?

Jan 17 2016 (5:18PM)
Blog Post# 1707090-10     
Indian Train Blog**     Added by: Indian Train Blog**    Jan 26 2016 (7:43PM)
Thanks for your suggestion. I've added all the #CSTCandIR Blog Entries to IRI FAQ as follows:-
CSTC Buses from SRC
CSTC Buses from HWH
Jan 26 2016 (4:24PM)


Entry# 1914     

★★★  Info Update
Jan 23 2016 (10:31PM)
Blog Post# 1719556-0     
JAI MAA TARA**     Added by: JAI MAA TARA**    Jan 26 2016 (4:24PM)
Educational Video on "HOW TRAIN CHANGES TRACKS"
Credit of Video: girishchukka
Jan 24 2016 (7:23PM)


Entry# 1913     
Indian Train Blog**  
What are the Govt (CSTC) Buses from Barrackpore Station to different locations of Kolkata City?

★  Other Social
Jan 24 2016 (7:21PM)
Blog Post# 1720242-0     
Indian Train Blog**     Added by: Indian Train Blog**    Jan 24 2016 (7:23PM)
List of CSTC (Calcutta State Transport Corporation) Buses from Barrackpore Railway Station Area to various locations of Kolkata (Calcutta) City:-
AC20 -> Santragachi to Barrackpore via 2nd Hoogly Bridge - PTS - Rabindra Sadan - Park Street - Esplanade - CR Avenue - Shyambazar - Dunlop - Agarpara - Titagarh
-> Nilgaunj Depot to Howrah via Barrackpore - Titagarh - Sodepur - Agarpara - Dunlop - Shyambazar - CR Avenue - MG Road - Barabazar
S-11 -> Nilgaunj to Nabanna (Active West Bengal State Secretariat) via Barrackpore - Titagarh - Sodepur - Agarpara - Dunlop - Shyambazar - CR Avenue - Esplanade - PTS - 2nd Hooghly Bridge
S-32 -> Barrackpore to Howrah via Barrackpore - Titagarh - Sodepur - Agarpara - Dunlop - Shyambazar - CR Avenue - Girish Park - Barabazar
#CSTCandIR - Data seen from Route Finder Page of CSTC Website
Original Image Source Link
Jan 24 2016 (1:52PM)

Coach Construction/Seating Arrangements

Entry# 1912     

★★  Info Update
Jan 21 2016 (10:43PM)
Blog Post# 1717669-0     
JAI MAA TARA**     Added by: JAI MAA TARA**    Jan 24 2016 (1:52PM)
We all know that there was a Proposal in Indian Railways to run "High Speed Train Sets" in between HWH/SDAH and NDLS to reduce Travel Time than Rajdhani Exp([/blog/post/1526017)|[/blog/post/1526017)]|/blog/post/1526017)]]
In this regard there was also proposals to use "Aerodynamics" in the Structure of these
Train Set Coaches so that they can glide Air very smoothly and increase speed than the normal LHB Coaches used in Indian Railways. Railway Ministry also gave proposal to use "Aerodynamics" in the LHB Coaches of present Rajdhani Expresses to convert it to Train Sets.
What is Aerodynamics ?
Ans: Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is a branch of Fluid dynamics concerned with studying the motion of air, particularly when it interacts with a solid object, such as an airplane wing. Aerodynamics is a sub-field of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, and many aspects of aerodynamics theory are common to these fields. The term aerodynamics is often used synonymously with gas dynamics, with the difference being that "gas dynamics" applies to the study of the motion of all gases, not limited to air.Formal aerodynamics study in the modern sense began in the eighteenth century, although observations of fundamental concepts such as aerodynamic drag have been recorded much earlier. Most of the early efforts in aerodynamics worked towards achieving heavier-than-air flight, which was first demonstrated by Wilbur and Orville Wright in 1903. Since then, the use of aerodynamics through mathematical analysis, empirical approximations, wind tunnel experimentation, and computer simulations has formed the scientific basis for ongoing developments in heavier-than-air flight and a number of other technologies. Recent work in aerodynamics has focused on issues related to compressible flow, turbulence, and boundary layers, and has become increasingly computational in nature.
Applicable Fields of Aerodynamics:
Aerodynamics is important in a number of applications other than aerospace engineering. It is a significant factor in any type of vehicle design, including automobiles. It is important in the prediction of forces and moments in sailing. It is used in the design of mechanical components such as hard drive heads. Structural engineers also use aerodynamics, and particularly aeroelasticity, to calculate wind loads in the design of large buildings and bridges. Urban aerodynamics seeks to help town planners and designers improve comfort in outdoor spaces, create urban microclimates and reduce the effects of urban pollution. The field of environmental aerodynamics studies the ways atmospheric circulation and flight mechanics affect ecosystems. The aerodynamics of internal passages is important in heating/ventilation, gas piping, and in automotive engines where detailed flow patterns strongly affect the performance of the engine. People who do wind turbine design use aerodynamics. A few aerodynamic equations are used as part of numerical weather prediction.
For more info :Aerodynamics
How Aerodynamics is Used in Railway Sector ?
Ans: Please see the Attached PDF Document(76 Pages) on "Aerodynamics of High Speed Trains" a Lecture delivered by
Dr Alexander Orellano
Manager Center of Competence for Aerodynamics & Thermodynamics
Bombardier Corporation
Link of this PDF Document: click here
Attached Image:
12695 Chennai-Trivandrum SF arriving at Platform No.1 in Kollam Junction Railway Station
Link: click here
A vortex is created by the passage of an aircraft wing, revealed by smoke. Vortices are one of the many phenomena associated with the study of aerodynamics.
Link: click here
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