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Apr 06 2013 (11:27)

Entry# 1531     
S V Iyer*^~
What is Interlocking work? What are the Types of Interlocking?

May 26 2017 (12:31)
Blog Post# 2293600-2     
Tabbys star and the Alien outpost~   Added by: MS TPJ section becomes FEDL^~  May 26 2017 (13:39)
Interlocking is usually mechanical or relay based. In such interlocking systems, the various routes and switches outside a station are physically connected together so that setting one route through the station automatically disables all other routes.
For example, in a station with 2 loop lines and a main line, if a train is going to pass through the main line without stopping, the main line signal will be set to green and the switches will be set so that the train stays on the main line. In a mechanical interlocking, the points and signals will be connected in such a way that turning the signal green automatically prevents the points from being changed until the signal is
changed to Red. This prevents accidental changing of points while the train is passing through. Relay based systems also do a similar thing where the electronic switches operating the points are connected in such a way that switching on a few switches automatically disconnects other switches.
In these systems, if the routes in the interlocking have to be changed, say, after construction of a new loop line, then all the mechanical/electrical connections have to be relaid again. In a Solid state interlocking, all the switches controlling the points and signals are controlled via software running on microprocessors ( Hence the name 'solid state', which is the general term used for semiconductor devices like microprocessors). In these systems, changing the routes can be done purely through software changes and does not require any physical modifications in the Yard.

Apr 06 2013 (11:26)
Blog Post# 715271-1     
S V Iyer*^~   Added by: S V Iyer*^~  Apr 06 2013 (11:27)
In railway signalling, an interlocking is an arrangement of signal apparatus that prevents conflicting movements through an arrangement of tracks such as junctions or crossings. The signalling appliances and tracks are sometimes collectively referred to as an interlocking plant.

A minimal interlocking consists of signals, but usually includes additional appliances like switches / Points, derails, crossings at grade and movable bridges. Some of the fundamental principles of interlocking include:

1. Signals may not be operated to permit conflicting train movements to take place at the same time.

2. Switches and other appliances in the route must be properly 'set' (in position) before a signal may allow train movements to enter that route.

3. Once a route is set and a train is given a signal to proceed over that route, all switches and other movable appliances in the route are locked in position until either
a. The train passes out of the portion of the route affected, or
b. The signal to proceed is withdrawn and sufficient time has passed to ensure that a train approaching that train has had opportunity to come to a stop before passing the signal.

Apr 06 2013 (11:28)
Blog Post# 715271-2     
S V Iyer*^~   Added by: S V Iyer*^~  Apr 06 2013 (11:28)
The Benefit:
Interlockings allow trains to cross from one track to another using a turnout and a series of switches. An interlocking is designed so that it is impossible to give clear signals to trains unless the route to be used is proved to be safe

Apr 06 2013 (11:29)
Blog Post# 715271-4     
S V Iyer*^~   Added by: S V Iyer*^~  Apr 06 2013 (11:29)
Types of Interlocking:

Mechanically operated interlocking:
In mechanical interlocking plants, a locking bed is constructed, consisting of steel bars forming a grid. The levers that operate switches, derails, signals or other appliances are connected to the bars running in one direction. The bars are constructed so that, if the function controlled by a given lever conflicts with that controlled by
another lever, mechanical interference is set up in the cross locking between the two bars, in turn preventing the conflicting lever movement from being made.

Manually operated interlocking:
This is a form of mechanical interlocking as well, but relies on the signalman to move about from one set of points and signals to another carrying with him the keys used to operate them.

Electrically operated interlocking:
In the more advanced electrical or electronic interlocking schemes, the points and signals are worked from one integrated mechanism in a signal cabin which features a display of the entire track layout with indications of sections that are occupied, free, set for reception or dispatch, etc. The interlocking is accomplished not by mechanical devices but by electrical circuitry -- relays and switches in older electrical or electropneumatic systems, and computerized circuits in the newer electronic systems.

Panel Interlocking:
It is a system used in most medium-sized stations on IR. In this, the points and signals are worked by individual switches that control them.

Route Relay Interlocking:
It is the system used in large and busy stations that have to handle high volumes of train movements. In this, an entire route through the station can be selected and all the associated points and signals along the route can be set at once by a switch for receiving, holding, blocking, or dispatching trains.

Source: Wikipedia, IRFCA
Apr 09 2012 (18:57)
Fares/Concessions/Refund Rules

Entry# 1082     
Gopalakrishnan P
Transfer of reserved accommodation to another passenger

General Travel
May 25 2017 (14:47)
Blog Post# 2292331-0     
K K^~   Added by: SRKs upcoming The Ring 😊^~  May 25 2017 (15:19)
Regarding transfer of confirmed tickets.
Source : Insta handle of RailminIndia

★★★  General Travel
Sep 06 2015 (10:05)
Blog Post# 1583586-0     
PKV*^~   Added by: Soumitra Chawathe*^~  Sep 06 2015 (10:07)
A lot of discussion has taken place in the past in IRI about change of the passenger's name in case of a reserved ticket. There have been several queries and suggestions as to how this is to be done. The guidelines are available in the FAQ section. But has anyone in IRI reported having successfully undergone this experience of a change of name. Not as far as I am aware.
Well here is documentary evidence of my own endeavour to change reservation in my son's name to that of my daughter. After a great ordeal I emerged triumphant in the end. To begin with the application by my son seeking transfer of the reservation to his sister.
note the remarks by the Station Manager at the right hand bottom corner .

Info Update
Feb 17 2014 (08:59)
Blog Post# 998101-0     
Love the weather of Bangalore*^~   Added by: Love the weather of Bangalore*^~  Feb 17 2014 (09:00)
जानिए कैसे ट्रेन टिकट हो सकता है ट्रांसफर, कौन-कौन उठा सकता है फायदा:
रेलवे आरक्षण टिकट पर छपा होता है कि यह टिकट नॉन ट्रांसफरेबल है। लेकिन रेलवे ने ब्लड रिलेशन में कन्फर्म टिकट दूसरे के नाम ट्रांसफर करने की सुविधा दे रखी है। कोई भी यात्री अपना कन्फर्म टिकट अपने बेटे, भाई या पिता के नाम ट्रांसफर करा सकता है। नाम परिवर्तन कराने के लिए आरक्षण सुपरवाइजर के नाम अर्जी देकर ब्लड रिलेशन का प्रमाण पेश करना होगा। इस नियम में एक शर्त यह है कि रियायती दर पर लिया गया
टिकट ट्रांसफर नहीं होगा। मसलन पिता का टिकट सीनियर सिटीजन कन्सेशन रेट का है तो वह उसके बेटे के नाम ट्रांसफर नहीं किया जाएगा। बहन, बेटी या पत्नी के नाम टिकट ट्रांसफर करने की सुविधा दी गई है।
*ये होंगे प्रमाण पत्र:
एक राशन कार्ड में टिकट धारी व उसका टिकट ट्रांसफर कराने वाले भाई, बहन, पत्नी, माता-पिता के नाम दर्ज होंगे तो मान्य किया जाएगा। दोनों व्यक्तियों के पेन कार्ड, मतदाता पहचान पत्र जैसा कोई दस्तावेज जिनसे ब्लड रिलेशन साबित हो, प्रस्तुत करने होंगे। साथ ही एक एप्लीकेशन भी देनी होती है जिसमें ना जाने का कारण लिखना होता है। साथ ही यह भी लिखना होगा कि उनके स्थान पर कौन जा रहा है।
किसको ट्रांसफर हो सकता है टिकट
शैक्षणिक भ्रमण, शोध या टूर्नामेंट में भाग लेने जाने वाले छात्रों के नाम भी रेल आरक्षण सूची में बदले जा सकते हैं बशर्ते स्कूल या कॉलेज के प्रधान को छात्र छात्राओं के नाम बदलने का विभागीय पत्र रेलवे रिजर्वेशन सुपरवाइजर के नाम यात्रा से 48 घंटे पूर्व जारी करना होगा।
*समूह कर्मचारी:
सरकारी महकमा या रजिस्टर्ड कंपनी के विभागीय काम, कांफ्रेंस या सेमिनार में भाग लेने जाने वाले कर्मचारियों के ग्रुप रिजर्वेशन में से अगर कुछ कर्मचारियों का यात्रा कार्यक्रम निरस्त हो जाए और उनके बदले दूसरे कर्मचारियों को भेजा जाए तो आरक्षण टिकट पर यात्रियों के नाम परिवर्तित हो सकते हैं। उस महकमे के हेड को आरक्षण सुपरवाइजर के नाम पत्र जारी कर उल्लेख करना होगा कि किन कर्मचारियों के स्थान पर कौन से दूसरे कर्मचारी यात्रा करेंगे।
शादी-ब्याह के आयोजक बाहर जाने वाली बारात में जाने वाले रिश्तेदारों, मित्रों व परिचितों के आरक्षण कई दिनों पूर्व करा लेते हैं। विवाह का दिन पास आने तक कुछ रिश्तेदार जरूरी काम आ जाने से बारात में नहीं जा पाते हैं। अपने स्थान पर घर के दूसरे सदस्य को भिजवा देते हैं। शादी समारोह के आयोजक को ट्रेन रवानगी से 48 घंटे पूर्व अर्जी देकर परिवर्तित बारातियों के नाम टिकट बदलवाने होंगे।
Go : /news/post/168415

Apr 09 2012 (18:53)
Blog Post# 392687-7     
জয় মাকালী*^   Added by: Gopalakrishnan P  Apr 09 2012 (18:57)
If the passenger 3 is a member of passenger 2's family, meaning, Father, Mother, Brother, Sister, Son, Daughter, Husband and Wife, change of name is permitted i.e. with official permission passenger 3 can travel in place of passenger 2.
Change of name is permitted under the following circumstances:
2. Chief Reservation Supervisor of important stations are authorized by Railway Administration to permit the change of name of a passenger having a seat or berth reserved in his name in the following circumstances namely :
Where the passenger is a Government Servant, proceeding on duty and appropriate authority, makes a request in writing 24 hours before the scheduled departure of trains
(b) Where the passenger makes a request in writing 24 hours before the scheduled departure of the train that the reservation made in his name may be transferred to another member of his family, meaning, Father, Mother, Brother, Sister, Son, Daughter, Husband and Wife.
(c) Where the passengers are students of a recognized educational institution and the Head of the institution makes a request in writing 48 hours before the scheduled departure of the train, that the reservation made in the name of any student be transferred to any other student of the same institute.
(d) Where the passengers are members of a marriage party and any person deemed to be Head of such party makes a request in writing 48 hours before the scheduled departure of the train that the reservation made in the name of any member of the marriage party be transferred to any other person.
(e) Where the passengers are a group of cadets of National Cadet Corps and any officer who is the head of the group, makes a request in writing at least 24 hours before the departure of the train that the reservation made in the name of any cadet be transferred to any other cadet.
Such request will be granted only once. Regarding item no. (c), (d) and (e), such request for change in excess of 10% of the total strength of group shall not be granted.
May 23 2017 (19:41)

Entry# 1989     
Harsh Khatri
How can we tag Station & Train Name After Posting Blog ?

May 22 2017 (00:27)
Blog Post# 2286730-8     
My first love darjeeling mail^~   Added by: Harsh Khatri  May 23 2017 (19:41)
• First click on the "EDIT" option
• Then click on the encircled option
• Some boxes will appear in front of you, click on the 1st box for changing the name of the train, click on the 2nd box for changing the name of the station, then write the name of the train/station on the selected bix
• Then click on the "POST"
May 19 2017 (22:32)

Entry# 1988     
AP Spl STS YSJAGAN is the next CM of AP^
SPARKS came on CATENARY CABLES while in train journey.

Info Update
May 19 2017 (22:32)
Blog Post# 2283664-0     
AP Spl STS YSJAGAN is the next CM of AP^   Added by: AP Spl STS YSJAGAN is the next CM of AP^  May 19 2017 (22:32)
Why do you sometimes see sparks on the catenaries?
This phenomenon is part of the normal functioning of the train, causing only very minor wear
to material and presenting no risk for passengers. How can it be explained?
The sparking from catenaries can be explained by the flexibility of the (spring loaded) pantograph and the catenary (wire), sometimes causing the pantograph to separate from
the cable. When the two components are less than one centimetre apart, the current continues to flow, due to the very high voltage which prevents the air from acting as an insulator. The passage of the current leads to ionisation of the air, i.e. a modification of the electrical charge of the atoms present in the air, which are no longer electrically neutral. It is this reaction that creates a spark, known as an “electrical arc”.
May 10 2017 (17:33)

Entry# 1987     
MS TPJ section becomes FEDL^~
What are mixed services?

Apr 10 2017 (15:20)
Blog Post# 2229742-2     
Tabbys star and the Alien outpost~   Added by: MS TPJ section becomes FEDL^~  May 10 2017 (17:33)
Mixed services usually have both freight wagons and passenger coaches in the same rake. Such services were usually run on routes with very less traffic. They used to be very common in the Steam days. These days, they are only visible in a handful of sections, mostly the remaining metre and narrow gauge sections.
May 10 2017 (08:58)

Entry# 1986     
Vijay Baradwaj
How to add IMG TB

Apr 18 2017 (09:45)
Blog Post# 2240352-0     
Vijay Baradwaj   Added by: Vijay Baradwaj  May 10 2017 (08:58)
How to post IMG TB
May 04 2017 (10:58)

Entry# 1985     
AP Spl STS YSJAGAN is the next CM of AP^
what is guard railings???

May 28 2016 (08:09)
Blog Post# 1858759-4     
MS TPJ section becomes FEDL^~   Added by: AP Spl STS YSJAGAN is the next CM of AP^  May 04 2017 (10:58)
Those tracks are called guard rails. Guard rails are placed parallel to regular running rail along areas of restrictive clearance, such as a bridge, trestle, or tunnel. These have the effect of keeping the wheels of rolling stock in alignment in case of derailment. It also helps to minimize damage to the structure and allow easier post-accident cleanup. Similarly you have check rails which are extra tracks on road surface in level crossings and have similar functions as thatcof guard rails.
May 02 2017 (12:14)
Train Classes

Entry# 1984     
AP Spl STS YSJAGAN is the next CM of AP^
some facts on SATABDI EXPRESS

★★★  General Travel
May 02 2017 (11:31)
Blog Post# 2259276-0     
My first love darjeeling mail^~   Added by: AP Spl STS YSJAGAN is the next CM of AP^  May 02 2017 (12:14)
•FIRST SHATABDI - NDLS JHS shatabdi exp (later extended to BPL) in 1988
• MOST RECENT SHATABDI - 12085/86 DBRG GHY shatabdi exp & 12087/88 GHY NHLN Shatabdi exp
•FASTEST SHATABDI - 12001/02 HBJ NDLS shatabdi exp (85kmph and 90 kmph)
FASTEST SHATABDI - 12033/34 CNB NDLS shatabdi exp (83kmph and 90kmph)
•SLOWEST SHATABDI - 12039/40 NDLS KGM shatabdi exp (50kmph and 51kmph)
•SECOND SLOWEST SHATABDI - 12017/18 NDLS DDN shatabdi exp (53kmph and 55kmph)
•FASTEST DIESEL HAULED SHATABDI - 12025/26 PUNE SC shatabdi exp (70kmph and 71kmph)
•SECOND FASTEST DIESEL HAULED SHATABDI - 12041/42 HWH NJP shatabdi exp (69kmph and 70kmph)
•SLOWEST DIESEL HAULED SHATABDI - 12039/40 NDLS KGM shatabdi exp (50kmph and 51kmph)
•SECOND SLOWEST DIESEL HAULED SHATABDI - 12087/88 GHY NHLN shatabdi exp (55kmph and 55kmph)
•LONGEST SHATABDI (DISTANCE) - 12001/02 HBJ NDLS shatabdi (702km)
•SHORTEST SHATABDI (DISTANCE) - 12035/36 AF JP shatabdi exp (240.4km)
•SHATABDI WITH MOST NO OF COACHES - 12003/04 LKO NDLS swarna shatabdi exp (20 coaches- 2EC, 2EOG, 16CC)
•SHATABDI WITH LEAST NO OF COACHES - 12035/36 AF JP shatabdi exp (7coaches - 1EC, 2EOG, 4CC)
•SHATABDI WITH MOST NO OF HALTS - 8 intermediate stops by 12001/2 HBJ NDLS and 12047/48 NDLS FZR shatabdi exp
•SHATABDI WITH LEAST NO OF HALTS - 2 intermediate hlats by 12034 NDLS CNB, 12035/36 AF JP. 12007/08 MAS MYS, 12027/28 SBC MAS shatabdi exp
•LONGEST NON STOP RUN BY A SHATABDI - 275.9km by 12034 NDLS CNB shatabdi exp between GZB and ETW
•SHORTEST NON STOP RUN BY A SHATABDI - 4.2km between SBC and BNC by 12027/28 SBC MAS shatabdi exp
•SHATABDI WITH NO EC - 12085/86 DBRG GHY and 12087/88 GHY NHLN shatabdi exp
•SHATABDI WITH A RAKE REVERSAL - 12087/88 GHY NHLN shatabdi exp (LR at RNY), 12017/18 DDN NDLS shatabdi exp (LR at SRE), 12043/44 NDLS MOGA shatabdi exp (LR at LDH)
Jul 27 2011 (03:30)
Ticket Reservation Quotas

Entry# 110     
What is the meaning of RAC? How is it different from Waitlist (WL) and Confirmed ticket statuses?

Apr 26 2017 (21:09)
Blog Post# 2251818-2     
My first love darjeeling mail^~   Added by: NxtGen IRians*^~  May 01 2017 (15:11)
Think of a train which has 100 reserved seats and 10 seats r for the RAC pax in that train. Now if already 110 people has reserved in that train and u r the 111th person to reserved in that train, then ur ticket will be in waiting list. Now suppose 1personout of those 110 before u has cancelled his ticket, then u ticket moves one position forward and u come within the 10 person who will have a RAC ticket. So u will now get a RAC ticket. Now suppose again 10 people out of those 109 peoples before u cancel their ticket in that train, so now u move forward by 10position and now u r among the 100 pax who will get a confirm seat.so now u will get a confirm ticket. If those cancellations don't occur then ur ticket will remain in RAC or WL as per...
the availability.
The sequence of getting confirm ticket in a train with WL is

Jul 28 2011 (17:56)
Blog Post# 211610-1     
ThE BoSs*^~   Added by: moderator*^~  Jul 28 2011 (23:18)

Jul 28 2011 (17:58)
Blog Post# 211610-2     
Nazeer*^~   Added by: moderator*^~  Jul 28 2011 (23:18)

Jul 28 2011 (17:58)
Blog Post# 211610-3     
Biplab Nayak*   Added by: moderator*^~  Jul 28 2011 (23:19)

Dec 15 2010 (18:46)
Blog Post# 91771-1     
Manoj Garhwal~   Added by: moderator*^~  Jul 28 2011 (04:44)
@guest: Re# 91771-0
RAC= Reservation Against Cancellation
Different trains have different no. of RAC seats depending on the class of travel - SL/3A/2A. 1A and CC do not have RAC.
it will be approx.8 per coach in SL (figures may change) In 2A/3A it is less.
a passenger has RAC booking, he can travel in the train. The passenger will be sharing the Side Lower Berth with some other passenger.
Depending upon vacancy and sequence, RAC passengers are allotted berths during journey. it is also possible, that a passenger will have to travel in RAC witout getting full berth for the entire journey.

Dec 15 2010 (18:48)
Blog Post# 91771-2     
DB*^~   Added by: moderator*^~  Jul 27 2011 (07:02)
@guest: Re# 91771-0
RAC means Reservation Against Cancellation!
An RAC ticket gets you on the train (A WL ticket doesn’t) and in your chosen class, but there’s a chance you could end up with just a seat.
A berth is split into 2 seats for 2 RAC ticket holders, if there’s any last minute cancellations, or if any quota allocations remain unsold, or if
any confirmed ticket holders are given a free upgrade (more later), an RAC ticket holder is given the empty berth, the other RAC ticket holder can then convert the 2 seats into a berth.

Dec 15 2010 (18:49)
Blog Post# 91771-3     
speed demon   Added by: moderator*^~  Jul 27 2011 (07:02)
@Manoj Garhwal: Re# 91771-1
What is GN sir?kindly explain me

Dec 15 2010 (18:59)
Blog Post# 91771-4     
DB*^~   Added by: moderator*^~  Jul 27 2011 (07:02)
@speed demon: Re# 91771-3

Dec 15 2010 (19:09)
Blog Post# 91771-5     
® राहुल जैन ☺ झाडू वाले™🚅🚃🚃🚃🚃🚃*^~   Added by: moderator*^~  Jul 27 2011 (07:02)
@Dipyaman Basu: Re# 91771-4
in many train i see waiting list directly clear and they got confirm ticket but few time they got RAC as well so what is the mechanism

Dec 15 2010 (19:16)
Blog Post# 91771-6     
DB*^~   Added by: moderator*^~  Jul 27 2011 (07:02)
@Rahul Kumar Jain: Re# 91771-5
Booking: Cnf-> RAC-> WL
Clearance: Opposite!

Dec 15 2010 (19:23)
Blog Post# 91771-7     
® राहुल जैन ☺ झाडू वाले™🚅🚃🚃🚃🚃🚃*^~   Added by: moderator*^~  Jul 27 2011 (07:02)
@Dipyaman Basu: Re# 91771-6
means wl list ticket confirm first then rac

Dec 15 2010 (19:23)
Blog Post# 91771-8     
Manoj Garhwal~   Added by: moderator*^~  Jul 27 2011 (07:02)
@Rahul Kumar Jain: Re# 91771-5
PQWL quota doesnt have RAC so it gets to CNF from WL
some wayside RLGN quotas also do not have RAC
Apr 23 2017 (20:07)

Entry# 1983     
AP Spl STS YSJAGAN is the next CM of AP^
What is DYNAMIC BRAKING??? How it is works???

Info Update
Apr 23 2017 (20:05)
Blog Post# 2247679-0     
AP Spl STS YSJAGAN is the next CM of AP^   Added by: AP Spl STS YSJAGAN is the next CM of AP^  Apr 23 2017 (20:07)
A half-century ago, when diesel locomotives were replacing steam engines, a revolutionary breakthrough - dynamic braking - was making freight operations safer and more efficient.
Dynamic braking is the method of train braking whereby the kinetic energy of a moving train is used to generate electric current at the locomotive traction motors.
It works like this: While the
train is coasting, the engineer, using an eight-notch controller similar to the throttle, energizes the traction-motor fields, causing the motors to act as generators. The resistance of the motor field acts as a brake on the locomotive, which in turn helps to slow the train. The electric current generated by the motors in the dynamic-braking mode is a waste product and is dissipated as heat in banks of resistors located in the locomotive carbody.
Dynamic braking is not a substitute for train air brakes (electronically controlled or otherwise), but a supplementary system that provides an additional means of train-speed control.
Initially, dynamic braking was seen mainly as a tool for mountainous territory, where freight-car wheels and brakeshoes were prone to overheating on long downgrades. Diesel locomotives for trains operating in level territory, relatively light trains like passenger trains, and slow-movers like yard engines, did not have dynamic braking. Large railroads like the Pennsylvania and Santa Fe would specify dynamic braking for diesels intended for use in mountain districts, and acquire units without "dynamics" for flat country. Substantially level railroads like Soo Line and Florida East Coast would eschew dynamics altogether.
Eventually, the desire for greater flexibility in locomotive assignment, as well as improvements like extended-range dynamic braking, which is effective at speeds as low as 6 mph (the "extension" is in speed), led to the adoption of dynamics as standard equipment for nearly all new diesels, freight and passenger. Though most diesels built recently have been big, road-haul units with dynamic braking, many older, non-"d.b." units are in service on locals and in yards.
While dynamic braking is used to control train speed all over the railroad network, it is still of vital importance in areas with heavy grades. In steam days, helper locomotives would cut off a train at the top of a grade. Today, diesels use their tractive effort to help move a train up one side of a hill, and dynamic braking to ease it down the other side. Indeed, in some spots like Cajon Pass in California, rules are in place to prevent a train from starting downgrade unless it has a specified number of units with functioning dynamic brakes.
The only external evidence of dynamics is the presence of grilles covering the resistor grids. These are found at the rear of the long hood under the radiator overhangs on General Electric units, and directly behind the cab just below the top of the long hood on newer General Motors products. Until the advent of the SD50 model in 1981, the dynamic braking resistors of GM locomotives were located in the middle of the long hood directly above the diesel engine in a pronounced bulge or blister topped by one or two cooling fans on the roof.
The use of dynamic braking is audible to the trackside observer in the form of a humming or whining sound that's quite distinct from the noise made by the diesel engine operating under load.
Dynamic braking's ancestor was regenerative braking, a feature found in some electric locomotives Regenerative braking was similar to dynamic braking in that wear and tear on wheels and brake shoes was reduced, and train-control was enhanced, but it was different in one important way: the power generated by the motors was not wasted by being dissipated as heat. Instead, the power was returned to the overhead distribution system With their motors functioning as generators, locomotives on downgrade trains could literally provide power to other trains going uphill.
The electrical characteristics of modern, rectifier electric locomotives and multiple-unit cars do not permit the return of power to the distribution system. Such rolling stock is equipped for simple dynamic braking.
A newer invention, electronically controlled pneumatic braking, may revolutionize train-handling in the decades to come.
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